Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)

Veterinary advice should be sought before applying any treatment or vaccine.

Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS)

Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is a complex disorder involving the horse's endocrine system, characterized by obesity and insulin resistance. One of the major complications with this disease is its association with recurrent or chronic laminitis in affected horses. EMS is similar to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 diabetes in humans. EMS occurs most frequently in obese horses with regional clusters of body fat, however it is also found in horses with a leaner body condition. These horses are often labeled as "easy keepers" or "good doers" for they are able to maintain their body condition with little feed required.

Clinical Signs of EMS

  • Cresty neck: Score of 3 or above
  • Fat deposits: Found along the side of the chest, hip region, and/or tail head.
  • Body condition: Body condition score of 7 or greater (our of 9).
  • Laminitis: Previous history, often related to grazing on lush pasture. Mild episodes can sometimes be mistakenly attributed to foot soreness following a farrier visit, sole bruising, or arthritis.

Treatment of EMS

The primary treatment goal for horses with EMS is to maintain the horse's body condition score at a seven, ideally a five. This is usually accomplished through weight control and conducting a nutrition analysis, modifying the horse's diet accordingly (usually includes switching to a low-stach diet and regularly soaking hay low in NSCs), and establishing a regular exercise program.


Fat deposits on the neck, shoulders and rump
History of laminitis
Altered reproductive cycle in mares


  • History
  • Physical exam
  • Clinical signs
  • Laboratory tests
  • Radiographs



Diet modificationLow starch feed and hay (wet 15 min prior to feeding).
Regular exercise program
Oral supplementsMetformin, Thyro-L
Pasture Turnout ManagementControlled grass intake is important in horses with EMS. To achieve this, grazing muzzles are often recommended, along with relocation to a different paddock which contains less lush grass coverage, and turnout schedule modification according to carbohydrate levels in pastures (for example, carbohydrate levels are lower at night and increased in the spring and early fall, after the first frost).


  • Managing weight
  • Limiting grain and increasing forage in diet

Scientific Research

General Overviews

Clinical Trials

Risk Factors

  • Obese horses
  • Hardier breeds : Such as Saddlebreds, Tennessee Walking Horses, Paso Finos, Morgans, Mustangs, Arabians and Quarter Horses.
  • Horses that are often described as 'easy keepers', which are able to gain weight without eating very much food.

Horse Case Stories

Commonly Affected Breeds

Morgan iconArabian iconPaso Fino iconShetland Pony iconSaddlebred iconDartmoor Pony iconBelgian Warmblood iconDutch Warmblood iconSwedish Warmblood icon